For light aircraft, it is often used during full-power takeoff. Large transport category (aircraft) aircraft may use a reduced power for takeoff where less than full power is applied to extend engine life, reduce maintenance costs, and reduce noise emissions. In some emergency situations, the power used can then be increased to improve the aircraft’s performance. Prior to takeoff, engines, particularly reciprocating engines, are routinely run at high power to check for engine-related problems. The aircraft is allowed to accelerate to the turn rate (often referred to as Vr).
The term rotation is used because the aircraft rotates about its major axis. With the landing gear still on the ground, an aircraft will lift itself off when proper air displacement occurs under/over the wings, usually due to the gentle manipulation of flight controls to make or facilitate this change in the aircraft’s attitude; make it easier).
The nose is raised to the nominal 5°–15° nose-up tilt position to increase lift from the wings and affect lift. For most airplanes, taking off without pitching requires cruise speeds while still on the runway.
Three planes taking off at the same time (note similar pitching attitudes)Fixed-wing aircraft (such as commercial jet aircraft) designed for high-speed operation have difficulty generating sufficient lift at the low speeds encountered during take-off.
For this reason, they are often equipped with high-lift devices, often containing slats and often flaps, which increase camber and generally wing area, making it more effective at low speed, thereby creating more lift. These open from the wing before takeoff and retract during the climb. They can also be deployed at other times, such as before landing.
The speeds required for take-off depend on the movement of the air (airspeed indicated). A headwind will reduce the ground speed required for takeoff as there is a greater flow of air over the wings. Typical take-off airspeeds for jet aircraft are in the range of 240–285 km/h (130–154 kn; 149–177 mph). Light aircraft such as the Cessna 150 take off at around 100 km/h (54 kn; 62 mph).
Ultralights have even lower takeoff speeds. For a given aircraft, takeoff speed is often dependent on the weight of the aircraft; the heavier the weight, the higher the speed required. Some airplanes are specially designed for short takeoff and landing (STOL) achieved by flying at very low speeds.